Paraphrasing in a research paper
How much of a source do you use? When should you use quotation marks? It is important to remember that you are the author of a paper, so sources are properly used to back up your own arguments, not state an argument in themselves, so how you use them depends on the structure of your paper and your argument. These results suggest that morning people, or early chronotypes—as measured on the morningness—eveningness continuum are more proactive than are evening types.
Additionally, the misalignment of social and biological time, as assessed by the difference between rise times on weekdays and on free days, correlated with proactivity, suggesting that people with a high misalignment of social and biological time may be less able to act in a proactive manner, probably because of sleep delay. Their biological schedules seem not to fit neatly into social demands e.
Randler, C. Proactive people are morning people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 39 12 , Randler states that people who are naturally morning people often also display traits that are considered proactive. He also suggests that late risers may not show as many proactive traits because they naturally operate on a different sleep schedule p. Randler, , p. Recent research shows that people who are not naturally early risers often have persistent issues adjusting themselves to the morning-oriented schedule of most schools and workplaces, and because of this may be less proactive in their behaviors Randler, The natural alignment of sleep schedules to work and school schedules allows early risers to have more energy and display proactive traits, while people who are natural late risers, and thus often combating sleep delay in adhering to regular schedules, display fewer of these traits Randler, Notice that with a Summary we do not always have to include the page number as we are summarizing the findings from the whole study, rather than just a small part of it.
Citing Your Sources. Integrating Sources into Your Paper Integrating sources into a paper can be challenging. This will help you avoid plagiarism. Paraphrasing means expressing information or ideas from other sources in your own words in a similar number of words as the source text. Paraphrasing is NOT simply replacing words with synonyms or rearranging the structure of sentences. It involves rephrasing a text substantially while retaining the original meaning. Paraphrasing involves acknowledging the original source with proper referencing. A paraphrase is particularly useful: when you are dealing with facts and definitions when you need to refer to a chunk of information from one particular part of a source e.
The paragraph below is a paraphrase written by a student.
Its aim is to support one of the key contentions in their essay on learning motivation among older students studying off campus. In the research study undertaken by Kahu , students struggled to learn material that did not interest them. However, they were highly motivated to learn, and more successful, when studying topics they chose themselves.
Kahu concludes that student interest in learning is greatly influenced by the design and content of the curriculum. Course design and content were critical influences on interest. On the other hand, compulsory courses and topics that did not interest the students often led to boredom and frustration. Boredom was consistently linked with lower behavioural and cognitive engagement. Bored students procrastinated more, studied less, and, importantly, found the learning more difficult. Below is an extract from a text which a student intends to use in an assignment, followed by two attempts at paraphrasing it.
Read through these, then indicate which you think does a better job of paraphrasing. It is generally agreed that homelessness is increasing in Australia, yet there is no commonly accepted definition. Because of the complexity of homelessness from a social policy and service delivery perspective, there are a wide range of views on what constitutes homelessness.
Definitions of homelessness are culturally and historically contingent. Homelessness is complicated from both policy-making and service delivery points of view. For this reason, there are many different opinions on what homelessness means. Characterisations of homelessness are linked to culture and history. They encompass both narrow objective views which define being homeless as being roofless, and more personal definitions based on cultural and historical understandings of 'home' ABS, A multi-faceted concept, homelessness can be defined in a variety of ways, most simply as the basic lack of shelter.
This complexity impacts the development of effective policy and services to address homelessness ABS, Summarised information must be accompanied by a citation. Don't forget to include a proper citation when summarising and be careful not to add new points or change the original meaning. The following paragraph is a summary of the original source below written by a student as part of a report on the dietary habits of Australian adolescents.
Compare the student's summary to the original text and answer the question. While protein intakes were adequate in these subpopulations, the top two sources of iron were from plant-based, iron fortified sources breakfast cereals and breads and bread rolls. With regard to higher iron bioavailability and density, animal-based protein sources may be another strategy to address iron intake, particularly among females, as it has been previously shown to be a less popular food choice among Australian children and adolescents and avoided by young female adults Fayet-Moore et al.
Fayet-Moore et al. They attribute this to a tendency to avoid foods derived from animals.
Language & Lit
Read this section of an article and choose which option from the answers below best summarises it. Longitudinal studies have also confirmed the role of beliefs in teacher practice. The impact of previously held beliefs was found to be enduring when four school teachers were observed over a two-year period implementing a new and specific method of teaching reading Stephens et al.
Despite the teachers receiving special training, new practice was not comprehensively sustained, with one teacher reverting to practice based on prior-held beliefs at the end of the training period. Similar reliance on earlier beliefs has been observed in studies of preservice teachers.
In a two year study on development of professional belief systems about reading instruction the teachers appeared to create fictive images of themselves as teachers consistent with their prior knowledge of teachers and reading, and the experiences they had on teaching practicum Stoube, Remember: Read the text carefully and check anything you do not understand. Your summary will not be accurate if you have misunderstood the work. In some disciplines, such as literary studies and history, quoting is used frequently to support an argument.
In most others, especially science and technology, it is used sparingly, if at all. Make sure you understand how quoting is used in your discipline. If unsure, ask a lecturer or tutor. Keep the quote as brief as possible, and integrate it into the development of your argument or discussion. This means commenting on the quote to show how it connects to your point. All quotes require page numbers in the citation.
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Different citation styles have different definitions of short and long quotes. Check your citation style or ask your tutor or lecturer if you are unsure. For a short quote up to two or three lines , place the relevant words in quotation marks and incorporate them into your sentence. According to Scholte , p.
Examples of Paraphrasing
It is not a failing of the author when one of the characters acts in an unusually audacious way. There are many examples in real life as well as fiction of a normally cautious person finding themselves enjoying an adventure. You do not need to place technical terms or specialised vocabulary in quotation marks if you use them as a part of a paraphrase or summary in your assignment. Generally, the quote should be preceded by a colon. Check the referencing style guide for your unit.
Kotler comments on the tendency of many Americans to assume that everything in the United States is better than elsewhere:.