Russian industrialisation essay

The volume also contains nearly fifty letters published for the first time. Among the Russians who kept in touch with Marx and Engels there were men and women belonging to three generations of revolutionaries. In the s the revolutionary movement in Russia had an almost exclusively intellectual and liberal character. It was based on no social class or popular force. Marx explained to them his philosophy and his economic ideas, but engaged in no discussion on revolution in Russia.

For this it was too early. In the s another generation of Russian revolutionaries came to the fore. They were the Narodniks or Populists or Agrarian socialists. It was, curiously enough, with the Russian intellectuals of that school advocating a pure peasant socialism that the two founders of the Western, strictly proletarian, socialism established ties of the closest friendship. Russia possessed no industry yet, no modern working class, almost no bourgeoisie. The intelligentsia and the peasantry were the only forces inside Russia to whom the two sworn enemies of Tsardom could look.

Marx first cooperated with Bakunin and then quarrelled with him.

Russia 1870 -1917

But I shall not discuss that controversy, to which only casual references occur in the correspondence under review. The Narodniks in Russia and in exile eagerly responded to the theories of Marx and Engels.

Russian was the first language into which Das Kapital was translated from the original. Based on English classical economy and German philosophy and on a thorough study of Western industrial capitalism, this great work seemed to bear no direct relation to the social conditions then prevailing in Russia.

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Russian Revolution of 1917

Danielson, [3] the translator of Das Kapital , himself a prominent Narodnik and economist, wrote to Marx that the Russian censor passed the book, believing it to be too strictly scientific to be suppressed. The book, so the censor thought, made in any case too heavy reading to have any subversive influence. Some years later the Russian censor passed the second volume of Das Kapital too, even though he had shortly before confiscated a Russian edition of the works of good old Adam Smith.

Nine hundred copies of Das Kapital were sold out in St Petersburg within a few weeks after its publication in , a very large number considering the character of the book, the time and the place.

But even before that Marx received striking proof of strange Russian enthusiasm for his ideas, when on 12 March a group of Russian revolutionaries asked him to represent Russia on the General Council of the First International. Marx was slightly puzzled by this unexpected Russian enthusiasm.

A man never knows what he may come to, or what strange fellowship he may have to submit to. His mind was agitated by Russia as a social phenomenon.

At the age of fifty he and Engels began to learn Russian. They watched the development of Russian literature and swallowed volume after volume of Russian statistics and sociology. Marx even intended to rewrite a portion of Das Kapital so as to base it on his Russian findings, an intention he was never able to carry out. Although amusement at some Russian eccentricities never left them, both Marx and Engels acquired a profound respect for the Russian intellectual achievement.

Chernyshevsky, [5] then serving his term of slave labour in Siberia, impressed Marx as the most original contemporary thinker and economist. We both, Marx and myself, cannot complain about your countrymen. If in some groups there was more revolutionary muddle than scientific research, there was also, on the other hand, critical thought and disinterested investigation in the field of pure theory, worthy of the nation of Dobrolyubov and Chernyshevsky I have in mind not only the active revolutionary socialists, but also the historical and critical school in Russian literature, which is infinitely superior to anything achieved by respectable historians in Germany and France.


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In the West, capitalist industrialisation was, according to Marx and Engels, paving the way for socialism. Topics in Paper. Example Essays. Continue reading this essay Continue reading Page 1 of 3. Next Page. More Essays:. In MegaEssays. Farnsworth, Beatrice, and Lynne Viola. Russian Peasant Women. New York: Oxford University Press, Societal roles cover everything from equality to the perception of women and how that changed since Tsarists rule before World War One. Society can cover many topics but this concept is important in how we understand the role of women.

Soviet women shoppers, having waited more than two hours, reached the counter to buy the American brands of candy bars in downtown Moscow, Friday, Jan. More than people queued during the morning snow. Mamonova, Tatyana. Westport, CN: Bergin and Garvey, A Revolution of Their Own. Boulder CO: Westview Press, Brown, Donald R. Women in the Soviet Union. New York: Teachers College Press, Women in Russia. Du Plessix Gray, Francine.

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Tolkien, the Russians and Industrialisation — Coventry University

Attwood, Lynne. Griswold, Robert L. Skip to content. Willis, David K. Klass How the Russians Really Lived. New York: St.