Behavior doctrine epictetuss essay hoover human laboratory testing

When Bernard Stiegler was imprisoned for five years for armed robbery in France , he assembled an "ensemble of disciplines," which he called in reference to Epictetus his melete.

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This ensemble amounted to a practice of reading and writing that Stiegler derived from the writings of Epictetus. This led to his transformation, and upon being released from incarceration he became a professional philosopher. Stiegler tells the story of this transformation in his book, Acting Out. This was in part the outcome of discussions Wolfe had with James Stockdale see above. The character Conrad, who through a series of mishaps finds himself in jail, and accidentally gets a copy of the Enchiridion of Epictetus , the Stoics manual, finds a philosophy that strengthens him to endure the brutality of the jail environment.

He experiences Joseph Campbell 's ' hero's journey ' call to action and becomes a strong, honorable, undefeatable protagonist. Stephens [70] in The Rebirth of Stoicism? Naipaul , is pleased to think himself a follower of Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius; the irony is that he never actually behaves as a Stoic. Lydia, the central character, turns often to The Golden Sayings of Epictetus —the latter being a modern selection from the writings of Epictetus, compiled and translated by Hastings Crossley.

A line from the Enchiridion is used as a title quotation in The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman by Laurence Sterne , which translates to, "Not things, but opinions about things, trouble men.

Testing Epictetus's Doctrines in a Laboratory of Human Behavior

This is similar to Shakespeare 's "There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. Epictetus is mentioned in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce : in the fifth chapter of the novel the protagonist Stephen Daedalus discusses Epictetus's famous lamp with a dean of his college. Salinger , and is referred to by Theodore Dreiser in his novel Sister Carrie. Both the longevity of Epictetus's life and his philosophy are alluded to in John Berryman 's poem, "Of Suicide.

Epictetus is referred to, but not mentioned by name, in Matthew Arnold 's sonnet "To a Friend".

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Arnold provides three historical personalities as his inspiration and support in difficult times Epictetus is preceded by Homer and succeeded by Sophocles :. Cleared Rome of what most shamed him. After he had his head reattached and was brought back to life, he recounts his experience of the damned in hell:.

After this manner, those that had been great lords and ladies here, got but a poor scurvy wretched living there below.

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And, on the contrary, the philosophers and others, who in this world had been altogether indigent and wanting, were great lords there in their turn. I saw Epictetus there, most gallantly apparelled after the French fashion, sitting under a pleasant arbour, with store of handsome gentlewomen, frolicking, drinking, dancing, and making good cheer, with abundance of crowns of the sun. Above the lattice were written these verses for his device:. To leap and dance, to sport and play, And drink good wine both white and brown, Or nothing else do all the day But tell bags full of many a crown. When he saw me, he invited me to drink with him very courteously, and I being willing to be entreated, we tippled and chopined together most theologically.

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In the meantime came Cyrus to beg one farthing of him for the honour of Mercury, therewith to buy a few onions for his supper. No, no, said Epictetus, I do not use in my almsgiving to bestow farthings. Hold, thou varlet, there's a crown for thee; be an honest man. Psychologist Albert Ellis , the founder of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy , credited Epictetus with providing a foundation for his system of psychotherapy. Kiyozawa Manshi , a controversial reformer within the Higashi Honganji branch of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism cited Epictetus as one of the three major influences on his spiritual development and thought.

Epictetus' philosophy is an influence on the acting method introduced by David Mamet and William H. Macy , known as Practical Aesthetics.

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The main book that describes the method, The Practical Handbook for the Actor , lists the Enchiridion in the bibliography. Note From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philosopher from Ancient Greece.


This article is about the philosopher. For the vase painter, see Epiktetos. Hierapolis , Phrygia presumed. Nicopolis , Achaea. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge UP, In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. He was born a slave. He must have been old enough to teach philosophy by the time Domitian banished all philosophers from Rome c.

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