Reference page in essay

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Books and Book Chapters: What to Cite. What Belongs in the Reference List? Although the Publication Manual 6th ed. Title of video [Video file]. Screen name. A digital object identifier DOI is a unique string of letters, numbers, and symbols assigned to a published work to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.


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The DOI is typically located on the first page of an electronic document near the copyright notice and on the database landing page for the document. When DOIs are available, include them in the reference information. Title of article. Journal Title, X , xxx—xxx. A DOI Primer. How to Find a DOI. A bibliography , however, may include resources that were consulted but not cited in the text as well as an annotated description of each one. Bibliographies may be organized chronologically, or by subject, rather than alphabetically.

If you have been given an assignment that asks for a bibliography, consult your instructor for more specifics about the required format. Order in the Reference List! Or the Case of the Maddening Initials. At the end of an essay or dissertation you should give a bibliography listing all the works you have referred to in your text or used in writing it, with full bibliographical details. For some research projects, compiling a bibliography is itself an important part of the research, which can be useful for other scholars and students.

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In general, make the bibliography a single list of works including both primary and secondary texts. Entries should appear alphabetically by author, and within each author's list chronologically in order of writing. The bibliography entry for each work should be identical to the first reference, except that the author's surname should come before the first name. For example:. Hegel, G. Knox Oxford: Oxford University Press, Back to previous menu Philosophy student resources Philosophy BA assessment methods Philosophy BA assessment criteria Philosophy essay writing: general points Philosophy essay writing: style Philosophy essay writing: word formation Philosophy essay writing: vocabulary Philosophy essay writing: grammar Philosophy essay writing: punctuation Philosophy essay writing: quotations Philosophy essay writing: references and bibliography Philosophy essay writing: external resources Philosophy essay writing for first year students Philosophy undergraduate dissertation FAQ Philosophy internet resources HAHP Examination and Assessment page.


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Philosophy essay writing: references and bibliography References You should give a reference for every passage which you quote, paraphrase, or discuss, describing as exactly as possible the location of the passage in its text. MHRA style References are given in footnotes or endnotes. A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work.

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In general, a bibliography should include:. An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph.

In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example:. When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper.

Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles.

Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word.

If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation.

A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material.


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  4. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not.

    Quoting Material

    Well, yes. The title is different because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes. Choosing to title your bibliography "Works Consulted" or "Selected Bibliography" may help specify the relevance of the sources listed.

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    Skip to content. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author s , title, and genre book, article, or web page, etc.